Alexandria During the Greek Era

The Serapeum (The Ptolemaic Temple)

The site of the ancient sumptuous Temple of the Serapeum, the term Serapeum means the Temple of the God Serapis.

The God Serapis is created by Ptolemey I (305-285 BC) in one of the ingenious politics, in order to persuade the Egyptian, and Greeks, that they worship the same divinity of one essence, but with two aspects.

 

Chatby Necropolis

Chatby Necropolis is one of The most interested monument from the eastern Greek Necropolis, as it is planned on the model of the ancient Greek house, the Necropolis is also distinguished by its site as the nearest Necropolis to the city walls and thus the oldest one also.

The Necropolis is discovered at the beginning of the last century, it is rock – cut Tomb, and consists of, a corridor, a court, a prostas, and oikos.

Mustafa Kamel Necropolis

Mustafa kamel Necropolis is situated to the North–east of Mustapha kamel district, close to the sea The Necropolis is considered to be one of the most important example of the Hellenistic funerary architecture in Egypt.

The Necropolis was discovered in 1933–1934, when the ground of the site was being leveled for football ground.

Six rock–cut Tombs of the Necropolis were found with some furniture (statues, vases, lamps, tableware, etc.) the Tombs date from 3rd to the 1st BC but they were reused during the Roman era.

The Anfoushi Tombs

The Anfouchi Tombs are so interesting owing to their painted scheme and
site, as they overlook the magnificent blue bay of Anfouchi. The Tombs are dated from the Ptolemaic period and some of them, at least, are reused during the Roman Era.

The Tombs area carved rock, they are five in numbers. The names of their ancient occupants are unknown.

The subjects depicted on the walls of the stairs remind man of the human destiny in the nether world. the presence of the Gods Osiris, Isis, Horous on the walls of the Tomb recalls the in mind, the ancient Alexandria trinity Serapis, Isis. Harpocrates, which became the principal
worship during the Ptolemaic era.

Alexandria During The Roman Era

The Serapieum (The Roman Temple)

The ptolemaic Temple may have been destroyed during the Jewish uprising under the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD). The new Temple was so sumptuous that it became the main subject for the classic writers who wrote about the city or visited it.

Pompey’s Pillar
The plateau of the Serapeum is dominated now by the legendary column erroneously called Pompeys’s Pillar, as it was believed since medieval ages that the head of the Roman leader pompey is buried beneath it.

The column is the lonely survive wonder of the city since the Roman era as it is the largest known column, carved of one block, of the very hard red granite stone.

The Temple of Ras el Soda

The Ras el Soda Temple was discovered in 1936 inside a sand hill at Ras el Soda district South of Sidi Bishr.  It was a private Temple dated to the late second century AD.

The Temple comprised a staircase leading up to a platform with four graceful ionic Pillars of blue veined white marble in the middle of the plate. The front of the stand is inscribed in Greek with a text reveals the secret of the monument.

The Temple was built on the course of ancient Canopic street, but nowadays it was transferred, from its location to its present place in Bab-Chrki district, in the same course of the ancient street.

Kom el Dikka

The archaeological area of Kom el Dikka covers some 40.000 square meters. and situated in the Westernmost side of Kom el Dikka hill and in the center of modern quarter of the public life of Alexandria. The monuments dating from the imperial era to the 7th century AD consist of imperial Baths, with gymnasia, unique marble Roman Theater with portico, cistern & Auditorium respectively.

Roman Bath
The Bath, dating from the 2nd century AD. is the greatest Roman Bath, ever found in Egypt, in spite it was greatly damaged, it still attracts attention owing to its picturesque scene, and red bricks.

The Theater
In the summer of 1964 a marble Theater was found at the South-West side of the area. The present shape of the monument is the result of works of rebuilding’s from the 2nd century (the original date of the monument) until the 5th century AD.

The Catacombs of Kom el Shuqafa

Catacombs of Kom El Shuqafa is considered one of the most amazing underground monument ever found in Egypt. It is distinguished by its plan and depicted scenes, which is a clearly blend of the great civilizations of the Mediterranean sea, Egypt, Rome, and Greece.

The necropolis consists of a series of Alexandrian tombs, statues, and archaeological objects. Due to the time period, many of the features of the catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa merge Roman, Greek and Egyptian cultural styles.

The Tigrane Tomb

This Tomb was discovered during digging foundation in 1952, in Tigran pasha street (now port said) hence the name of the Tomb.

The Tomb was rock-cut, the burial chamber is plastered and painted, the plastered painted layer of burial chamber, is of special interest for the history of creeds in ancient Alexandria, so it was detached, and reconstructed in the esplanade of the Catacombs, as the Tomb is contemporary with the Catacombs.

Submerged Antiquities

Since the beginning of the 20th century a series of underwater activities have revealed an astonishing remains of the ancient submerged sites of Alexandria, Canopus, and Herakleiom. The underwater activities unclouded the area from West of Pharos Island, and the bay of Abu Kir.

The area of the discovers is covering about 2.25 hectares, according to the archaeological works in the site, thousands of statues, Pharaonic, Greek and Roman architectural elements have been revealed.

Certain monuments are of a remarkable size and width, numerous blocks of granite weight between 50 and 75 tonnes, and column has the same diameter as Pompey’s Pillar at its summit, such monument recalls, the destroyed element of the light-house, and architectural of the serapum thrown into the bed sea in the site by a certain vizier of Salladin.