Alexandria from its Founding


(1323 – 1295 B.C)


Horemheb had been of a military career, he was an Officer during Amarna period, He began numerous reforms to salvage Egypt of political and administrative corruption.

As skillfully sculptured of black basalt of Horemheb as Sphinx was found in the Serapeum of Alexandria.

(1294 – 1279 B.C)

Seti I

The father of Ramses II, he is a great Pharaoh, and military leader. The walls of Karnak decorated by scenes celebrating the king’s victories over the enemies of Egypt.

He built many fine monuments. The memnonium of Abydos is admired by Strabo. The tomb of Seti in the valley of the kings is worth seeing, as It is the most enigmatic and beautiful tomb in the valley. Numerous of his monuments were found in ancient Rahkotis, and elsewhere in Alexandria.

(1235 – 1351 B.C)

Ramses II

Ramses II was a great builder of monuments throughout Egypt, and the neighboring countries, he had planned new towns. His monuments still attract attention, in Tanis Delta, Luxor, and Abu Simbel. He waged war against enemies of Egypt, in Asia, and Africa. In order to protect the west border of Egypt, he built a series of forts in west of the Delta. His monuments were found in ancient Rahkotis (The Serapeum Temple) and elsewhere in Alexandria.

(664 – 610 B.C)

Psamtek I

A strong and a talented politician Pharaoh who could unit Egypt and drove away Assyrians and Ethiopians from Egypt. He founded the 26th dynasty which is characterized by the renewal of the glorious past of the ancient Egypt, at the same time.

Psamtek allowed the greek to found a commercial centre at Naucratis which lay on the east bank of the canopie branch of the Nile, about fifty miles to the east of Rahkotis in which his monuments were found.

(356 – 323 B.C)

Alexander The Great

Alexander son of Philip of Macedonia, he was educated by the famous philosopher Aristotle. He could to invade and expelling the Persians out of Egypt in 332-1 B.C. He Chose and founded the site of his new Capital which was named after him “Alexandria”. He went to Amun Temple at the Oasis of Siwa, where he officially enthroned as a legal pharaoh of Egypt. He left Egypt after six months and died in Babylon in Iraq and till now his tomb one of the big mysteries to be found, but the majority of the Archeologists believe that his tomb is in Alexandria.

(303 – 285 B.C)

Ptolemy I (Soter)

The historian of Alexander the Great and he could control Egypt after the death of Alexander. Founded of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt and established the ancient Library, the Mouseion was the home of music or poetry, a philosophical school, the famous ancient library and the Pharos which was one of the ancient seven wonders. Ptolemy’s most genius political deeds were the creation of the new cult of Serapis in Egypt. He was the one who built the tomb of Alexander the great in Alexandria.

(282 – 246 B.B)

Ptolemy II (Philadelphus)

Son of Ptolemy I (Soter), his reign was distinguished by the accomplishment of the ancient Library, and the ancient Light House (Pharos). Ptolemy also founded the suburb of Eleusis to the east of the city.
He followed a talented financial policy, and did agricultural activity in Egypt specially in Fayoum. During his reign, the royal quarter (in Chatby) was considered the scientific cultural center of the world.

(246 – 220 B.C)

Ptolemy III (Eurgetes)

The builder of the great Ptolemaic temple of Serapeum in Alexandria, and tried to reform the Egyptian calendar. He waged a successful war in Syria. His reign Ptolemy’s reign is considered the apex of the Ptolemaic rule.

(221 – 205 B.C)

Ptolemy IV Philopator

He recruited the Egyptian in the Ptolemaic army for the first time during
Ptolemaic dynasty, so he achieved great military success in Raphia (GAZA) in 217 B.C.

(205 – 180 B.C) (187 – 186 B.C)

Ptolemy V Epiphanes

During his reign the power of the dynasty began to be weak. The famous Rosetta-stone was a decree dates back to his reign, which was issued at Memphis, representing a record of benefits conferred on Egypt, written in three scripts: Hieroglyphic, Demotic, and ancient Greek.

(51-31 B.C.)

Cleopatra VII

The last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty, Cleopatra VII inherited the rule of Egypt with her brother Ptolemy XIII as coregent when they were both too young, she was ousted of power, and restored to the throne as coregent with her brother
Ptolemy XIV.
She married Caesar, and bore him a son, Ptolemy Caesarion, after Caesar assassination in Rome; she married Mark Antony and bore him twins.
She began to build the great Caesareum Temple in favor of Mark Antony but he was defeated at the naval battle of Actium, by Augustus in 31 BC, Antony committed suicide, and Cleopatra followed him and committed suicide by an asp it is said, and her grandson Caesarion was killed.
Variant statues of her were found in Alexandria, and she was depicted on Dendra Temple in Upper Egypt.

(31 B.C.- 14 A.D.)

Caesar Augustus (Octavian)

The founder of the Roman Empire, he could defeat Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII in 31B.C. and annexed Egypt to the Roman Empire. He resumed the building of the Caesareum which was begun by Cleopatra and dedicated it to the worship of the Emperors. The greatest event during his reign was the birth of the Christ.